Thursday, July 11, 2013

1307.2627 (G. Santangelo et al.)

Herschel PACS observations of shocked gas associated with the jets of L1448 and L1157    [PDF]

G. Santangelo, B. Nisini, S. Antoniucci, C. Codella, S. Cabrit, T. Giannini, G. Herczeg, R. Liseau, M. Tafalla, E. F. van Dishoeck
In the framework of the WISH key program, several H2O (E_u>190 K), high-J CO, [OI], and OH transitions are mapped with PACS in two shock positions along the two prototypical low-luminosity outflows L1448 and L1157. Previous HIFI H2O observations (E_u=53-249 K) and complementary Spitzer mid-IR H2 data are also used, with the aim of deriving a complete picture of the excitation conditions. At all selected spots a close spatial association between H2O, mid-IR H2, and high-J CO emission is found, whereas the low-J CO emission traces either entrained ambient gas or a remnant of an older shock. The excitation analysis at L1448-B2 suggests that a two-component model is needed to reproduce the H2O, CO, and mid-IR H2 lines: an extended warm component (T~450 K) is traced by the H2O emission with E_u =53-137 K and by the CO lines up to J=22-21, and a compact hot component (T=1100 K) is traced by the H2O emission with E_u>190 K and by the higher-J CO lines. At L1448-B2 we obtain an H2O abundance (3-4)x10^{-6} for the warm component and (0.3-1.3)x10^{-5} for the hot component; we also detect OH and blue-shifted [OI] emission, spatially coincident with the other molecular lines and with [FeII] emission. This suggests a dissociative shock for these species, related to the embedded atomic jet. On the other hand, a non-dissociative shock at the point of impact of the jet on the cloud is responsible for the H2O and CO emission. The other examined shock positions show an H2O excitation similar to L1448-B2, but a slightly higher H2O abundance (a factor of 4). The two gas components may represent a gas stratification in the post-shock region. The extended and low-abundance warm component traces the post-shocked gas that has already cooled down to a few hundred Kelvin, whereas the compact and possibly higher-abundance hot component is associated with the gas that is currently undergoing a shock episode.
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