Friday, June 28, 2013

1306.6472 (A. E. Tsitali et al.)

The dynamical state of the First Hydrostatic Core Candidate Cha-MMS1    [PDF]

A. E. Tsitali, A. Belloche, B. Commerçon, K. M. Menten
Observations of First Hydrostatic Core candidates, a theoretically predicted evolutionary link between the prestellar and protostellar phases, are vital for probing the earliest phases of star formation. We aim to determine the dynamical state of the First Hydrostatic Core candidate Cha-MMS1. We observed Cha-MMS1 in various transitions with the APEX and Mopra telescopes. The molecular emission was modeled with a radiative transfer code to derive constraints on the envelope kinematics. We derive an internal luminosity of 0.08 - 0.18 Lsol. An average velocity gradient of 3.1(0.1) km/s/pc over 0.08 pc is found perpendicular to the filament in which Cha-MMS1 is embedded. The gradient is flatter in the outer parts and at the innermost 2000 - 4000 AU. These features suggest solid-body rotation beyond 4000 AU and slower, differential rotation beyond 8000 AU. The origin of the flatter gradient in the innermost parts is unclear. The classical infall signature is detected in HCO+ 3-2 and CS 2-1. The radiative transfer modeling indicates a uniform infall velocity in the outer parts of the envelope. An infall velocity field scaling with r^(-0.5) is consistent with the data for r < 9000 AU. The infall velocities are 0.1 - 0.2 km/s at r > 3300 AU and 0.04 - 0.6 km/s at r < 3300 AU. Both the internal luminosity of Cha-MMS1 and the infall velocity field in its envelope are consistent with predictions of MHD simulations for the first core phase. There is no evidence for a fast, large-scale outflow stemming from Cha-MMS1 but excess emission from the high-density tracers CS 5-4, CO 6-5, and CO 7-6 suggests the presence of higher-velocity material at the inner core. Its internal luminosity excludes Cha-MMS1 being a prestellar core. The kinematical properties of its envelope are consistent with Cha-MMS1 being a first core candidate or a very young Class 0 protostar.(abridged).
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